Why the Voting Rights Act Is Under Attack on Its 50th Anniversary

Residents cast their votes at a polling place in Ferguson, Mo., Nov. 4, 2014.    SCOTT OLSON/GETTY IMAGES
Residents cast their votes at a polling place in Ferguson, Mo., Nov. 4, 2014.

The national commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Voting Rights Act takes place against the backdrop of a devastating full-scale assault on the civil rights movement’s signature legislation.

For African Americans, the passage of the Voting Rights Act on Aug. 6, 1965, represented the culmination of a centuries-long struggle for citizenship. President Lyndon Johnson’s signing of the legislation, designed to end a century of voter disfranchisement in the South and other parts of the nation, was inspired by grassroots protests and organizing that gripped the nation. Martin Luther King Jr.’s efforts in Selma, Ala., linked a local campaign for voting rights to a national movement to redefine American democracy.

The VRA ended decades of voter disfranchisement by mandating federal oversight of states with the most egregious records of racial discrimination at the polls. By the 1970s and 1980s, a new generation of black elected officials emerged at the local, state and national levels as African Americans emerged as power brokers capable of leading major urban cities (Atlanta, Detroit, Newark, N.J., Los Angeles and New York) and influence federal policy through the actions of the Congressional Black Caucus.

The biggest victory in the long struggle for voting rights belonged to African Americans, whose increasing vote helped shift the balance of local and national elections.

Barack Obama’s emergence as the nation’s first black president would have been impossible without the VRA, which also helped to inspire Jesse Jackson’s 1984 and 1988 presidential campaigns as well as the young Sen. Obama’s own presidential run in 2007.

Black votes proved critical to catapulting Obama to the Democratic Party nomination in 2008 and in the general election. In 2012 the black vote reached full maturity, with census data indicating that the rate of African-American voting surpassed that of whites for the first time in American history.

These stunning results should have inspired a national celebration but instead triggered revulsion and panic among conservatives who have made it their mission to roll back hard-won voting rights. The Supreme Court’s 2013 Shelby County v. Holder decision amplified efforts to restrict voting access by eliminating federal oversight of changes in voter laws by 15 states (including Texas, South Carolina and North Carolina) that have a history of racial discrimination.

In short order, many of these states have instituted voter-ID laws designed to reduce the number of African-American, Latino and poor people who vote. Other states, such as Florida and Ohio, have ended early voting, halted extended poll time, and instituted a variety of measures intended to blunt the force and impact of a black vote that helped twice elect President Obama.

Civil rights activists, the NAACP, the American Civil Liberties Union and other grassroots political organizers have responded with massive protests, most notably Moral Mondays in North Carolina, designed to challenge voter restrictions and state budget cuts that have impacted schools, poor people and the elderly.

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Source: The Root | PENIEL E. JOSEPH